Free swimming – also called Free
Free swimming is one of the official swimming disciplines according to FINA’s rules. Free swimming is not a style such as. back crawl and breaststroke. The English term freestyle can be translated to freestyle, so it is optional how you want to swim. According to the “Australian Macquarie dictionary”, crawl is the most widely used style as it is the fastest way to swim with lifeguard training.
There are no rules for how to swim free, and it is allowed to switch between different styles. There are only a few ways to be disqualified in free swimming:
- false start
- failure to touch the edge in a turn
- walk at the bottom of the basin
- failure to complete the race
For international swimming competitions, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m are competed. Previously, only women swam 800 m, while men swam 1500 m. This still applies to the Olympic swimming competitions. For other international events, both sexes swim both distances. At small local swimming competitions in Denmark, it is normal to swim 25 m free.
Crawl is the most widely used freestyle swimming style due to the fact that it is mostly the fastest way to swim. 100 meters swim in approx. 90 sec.
Since free is not a specific style, it is allowed to switch between the four different styles. This also makes it harder to be disqualified as there are no specific rules for how to swim. The only ways you can get the disc is boot start and if you do not hit the edge in the turn.
Swimming means the ability to move in water near the surface.
Humans can swim, but not from birth, it must be taught how to swim. The difference is that animals that have four legs swim by simultaneously moving the legs that they use to walk on. Humans only walk on two legs, and in order to swim, the leg and arm movements must be properly coordinated.
This style is swum at the following distances at championships, including at the European Championships, World Cups or Olympics (at smaller competitions and tournaments other variations may occur):
- 50 meters
- 100 meters
- 200 meters
- 400 meters
- 800 meters
- 1500 meters
- 4 × 100 meters free
- 4 × 200 meters free
In addition, the style is included in the following disciplines:
- 100m individual medley
- 200m individual medley
- 400m individual medley
- 4 × 100m team medley
R crawl – also called Rug
Is one of a total of four styles in the sport of swimming. Backstroke is to some extent reminiscent of crawling, just swimming, lying on your back. Back crawl is also the only one of the mentioned swimming species where the breathing takes place exclusively over the water, in contrast to the other swimming species where the exhalation takes place under water.
At larger events, backstroke swimming is swum at the following distances (at smaller events, other variations may occur):
- 50m Backstroke
- 100m Backstroke
- 200m Backstroke
In addition, backstroke is included in the following medley distances:
- 100m Individual Medley (swims only in 25m pool)
- 200m Individual Medley
- 400m Individual Medley
- 4 × 100m Holdmedley
Before the race starts, you whistle up to the stool, and a signal whistle is given to jump into the water. After the swimmers have entered the water, the whistle is blown once more, which indicates that preparation must be made for the start. The swimmers now go into the starting position, as in the first picture. Make sure everyone has their toes below the water surface, after which get ready for the final start.
Backstroke is thus the only style where professional swimmers do not start from the stool.
The following violations may result in disqualification during a swimming competition:
It should swim on its back. Swimming on the stomach leads to disqualification. Just before a turn, however, it is allowed to rotate along the longitudinal axis of the body, about on the abdomen, after which the turn must be made. If you lie on your stomach and use your legs after taking the last arm grip, you will be disqualified for “active legs in turn”
It is not allowed to swim more than 15m below the water surface. After each turn, you must have broken the water surface before the 15 meter mark is reached.
During the turn, when you have rotated on the stomach, there must be no leg movement. An arm pull underwater to start the turn is allowed. It is not allowed to slide on the stomach until you get close enough to the edge to be able to make the turn.
Breast Swimming – also called Breas
t Is a style in the sport of swimming. Widespread among amateurs, as this at a slow pace is one of the most relaxing styles. (Breaststroke can also be extremely hard if they take place in competitive swimming, ie at a very fast pace.)
Technically, a breaststroke takes place by pushing the arms forward under the water and pulling them under the body. The leg kick will occur when the arms are pushed forward and kicked away from the body, as seen in the picture.
At swimming competitions you may be disqualified for the following violations
When starting from the edge after a turn at one of the ends, you must have taken a maximum of one and a half armrests before breaking the water surface. Ie. an entire armrest, and that the arms must be at most under the body before the water surface is broken.
In case of suspicion of butterfly leg kick, disqualification may be considered.
Breaststroke seen from the side At larger swimming competitions, breaststroke is swum at the following distances:
- 50m Breaststroke
- 100m Breaststroke
- 200m Breaststroke
In addition, breaststroke is included in the following medley races.
- 100m Individual Medley (25m Pools Only)
- 200 m Individual medley
- 400 m Individual medley
- 4×50 m Hold medley
- 4×100 m Hold medley
Butterfly – also called Flyer Is a swimming style, and is considered the most technically difficult style and probably also the most demanding.
The name of the swimming style (butterfly) comes naturally from the movements of the arms when swimming, as both arms follow each other throughout the movement. The arms are thrown forward simultaneously, across the water surface, and the hands are guided in the water in front of the head. Then the arms are pulled in under the body, after which the movement is repeated. Leg kicks take place when the hands are put in the water, as well as when the arms are pulled back, and are done by kicking the legs up and down, and keeping them together at all times. Breathing also takes place when the arms are advanced.
At swimming competitions, swimmers in this discipline may be disqualified for the following violations:
Disqualification can occur with non-synchronous arm movements
In the turn, both arms should touch the edge at the same time. In case of contact with only one arm, the person must be disqualified.
At larger events butterfly swims at the following distances, at smaller events other variations may occur:
- 50 m Butterfly
- 100 m Butterfly
- 200 m Butterfly
Butterfly is also included in the following medley distances:
- 100m Individual Medley (swims in 25m pool only)
- 200 m Individual Medley
- 400 m Individual Medley
- 4 × 100 m Hold medley
Medley is a complex discipline where all styles are included (Fly, Back, Chest, Crawl)
The order of individual medley is fly, back, chest and crawl, while in team cap it is back, chest, fly and crawl. This is because the swimmer starts down in the water when swimming back, and they have chosen to let the back swimmer start in team medley to avoid the previous swimmer hitting the back swimmer.